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Dr. Jamal Badawi Presents

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Islam in 176 Hours

This material was obtained by permission from Reading Islam and Dr. Jamal Badawi

I) Miracles in the Qur'an


Preview of Contents (3) Where Does This Series Fit? (5) 
 Other Names of the Qur’an (5) The Term “Qur’an” (5)
 The Prophet’s Role (2)  Difference from Hadith (5)
Comparison of Qur’an and Hadith (5)

Source of the Qur’an — I: Internal Evidence

How to Determine Authorship of the Qur’an (3) Summary of the Last Program (2)
 Style of the Qur’an (4)  Internal Evidence from the Qur’an (5)

Prophet’s Statements about Authorship of the Qur’an (6)

Negation of Human Authorship (5)
Forms of Revelation (1)  Meaning of Revelation (3)
 Forms Given to Muhammad (1)

Source of the Qur’an — II: Impossibility of Muhammad’s Authorship

Muhammad Is Not the Author of the Qur’an (1)  Summary of the Last Program (2)

Worse-off Financially (8)

Was There a Personal Benefit to Muhammad? (1)
 Was Muhammad in Pursuit of Power? (6)  Assets at the Time of Death (5)

Source of Qur’an — III: Absence of Personal Motives

Did Muhammad Seek Leadership? (6) Summary of the Last Program (2)
Fabrication Is Condemned by the Qur’an (7) Could Muhammad Have Avoided Persecution? (7)
Accusing the Prophet of Fabricating the Qur’an (3)  Muhammad Was Known as “The Trustworthy” (5)

Source of the Qur’an — IV: Epilepsy an Unscientific Explanation

 The Prophet’s Visions (6) Summary of the Last Program (3)
Illusion (4) Basic Argument (5)
 Prophecies in the Qur’an (7) The Qur’an and History (7)

Source of the Qur’an — V: Religious Illusions (1)

Psychic Phenomena (2) Summary of the Last Program (2)
 Revelation and Other Prophets (3) Epileptic Seizure (7)
 Types of Epilepsy: Type 1 (3)  Epilepsy in Science (3)
 Types of Epilepsy: Types 3 and 4 (4)  Types of Epilepsy: Type 2 (2)
Did Prophet Muhammad Suffer from Epilepsy? (5)

Source of Qur’an — VI: Religious Illusions (2)

Prophecies about Specific Events (5) Summary of the Last Program (2)
Prophecies about Specific Persons (8)  Prophecies about Badr (11)
 Conclusions about the Source of the Qur’an (2)

Source of the Qur’an — VII: Learning from Others

 Did Muhammad Learn the Qur’an from Others? (3) Summary of the Last Program (2)
 Did Muhammad Learn the Qur’an from a Roman Blacksmith? (3) Non-Pagans in Makkah (3)
From Contact with Waraqah? (3) From Other Learned Persons? (2)
 Student or Teacher? (3)  From Ancient Teachers in Arabia?(3)
The Logical Flaw (3) Travels outside Arabia (4)

Source of the Qur’an — VIII: Borrowing from the Bible (1)

 The Question of Parallels (6) Summary of the Last Program (2)
Is Comparison of the Qur’an and the Bible Appropriate? (1) Older Documents Are Not Always More Accurate (3)
 Synods Did Not Define the Qur’an (3) Major Differences (7)
The Qur’an Confirms Unadulterated Truth: Tawrah, Injeel, and the Bible (8)

Source of the Qur’an — IX: Borrowing from the Bible (2)

Tawheed vs. Biblical Concepts (10) Summary of the Last Program (3)
Qur’anic Concepts (7) Power Struggle? (5)
 Prophet’s Character (4)  Prophethood and Prophets (2)
 The Qur’an and Prophets (2)

Source of the Qur’an — X: Borrowing from the Bible (3)

 Adam and Eve in Both Books (7) Summary of the Last Program (3)
 Blood Sacrifice in Islam (6) Important Differences (6)
 Other Variations in Creed (6)

Source of the Qur’an — XI: Borrowing from the Bible (4)

Explanation of Absence of Biblical Details in the Qur’an (8)  Summary of the Last Program (6)
Examples of Variations (2) Variations in Stories about Prophets (6)
Can Modern Sciences Verify the Qur’an? (1) Use of the Arabic Language (3)

The Qur’an and Modern Sciences — I: Reservations

Should We Interpret the Qur’an with Modern Sciences? (1)  Summary of the Last Program (2)
 Qur’anic Exhortations (6)  A Comment on These Objections (5)
 Main Areas of Comparison (1) Maurice Bucaille’s Work (4)
Genealogy in Christianity and Islam (2)  Creation of the Universe (4)
Reaction to Bucaille’s Book (3)  Genealogy in the Bible Is Scientifically Inconceivable (2)

The Qur’an and Modern Sciences — II

The Flood in the Bible (5) Summary of the Last Program (1)
 The Exodus (6) The Flood in the Qur’an (3)
Creation of the Earth and the Universe (4) The Qur’an’s Story of Pharaoh’s Body (3)
 Why Do Stars Shine? (2) Gaseous Origin of the Universe (2)
The Qur’an’s Version of the Origin of the Universe (3)

The Qur’an and Modern Sciences — III

Interstellar Galactic Material (4)  Summary of the Last Program (4)
Sequence of Creation (6) Duration of Creation (4)
 Expansion of the Universe (3) Equilibrium and Due Proportion (3)
 Rotation of Celestial Bodies (3) The Seven Heavens (3)

The Qur’an and Modern Sciences — IV: Astronomy

Nature of Rotation (3)  Summary of the Last Program (2)
End of the Sun (3) Moon’s Reflection of Sunlight (3)
 The Qur’an on Earth’s Rotation (3) Day-Night Cycle (5)
Are There Other Earths? (4) Easts and Wests in the Qur’an (4)

The Qur’an and Modern Sciences — V: The Water Cycle

Life on Other Planets (2) Summary of the Last Program (3)
The Qur’an on the Water Cycle (3)  Role of Water (3)
Condensation of Clouds and Rainfall (6)  Discovery of the Water Cycle (5)
 The Barrier between Fresh and Salt Water (5) Artificial Rain (1)

The Qur’an and Modern Sciences — VI: Geology, Botany, and Zoology

Role of Mountains (3) Summary of the Last Program (2)
The Qur’an on Botany (5) The Shadow (5)
Animal Communities in the Qur’an (9)  General Aspects of Zoology (2)
 Bees, Spiders, and Ants (3)

The Qur’an and Modern Sciences — VII: Human Reproduction (1)

The Qur’an on Birds (4) Summary of the Last Program (2)
Human Reproduction in the Qur’an (4) Formation of Milk (6)
 Formation of Reproductive Organs (4) Common Theories until the 18th Century (5)
Illustration (3)

The Qur’an and Modern Sciences — VIII: Human Reproduction (2)

Changes in the Womb (6)  Summary of the Last Program (2)
Man’s Role (4) Beyond Pregnancy (5)
Woman’s “Water” (4) The “Mingled Liquid” (3)
 Behavior of the Ovum (4) The Fertilization Process (4)

The Qur’an and Modern Sciences — IX: Human Reproduction (3)

Why Are There So Many Sperms? (4)  Summary of the Last Program (2)
Sex Determination (3)  The Nutfah (Drop) (5)
 Thousands of Proteins (3) Role of DNA (3)
The Qur’an on Sex Determination (3) Chromosomes and the Sex of the Baby (6)

The Qur’an and Modern Sciences — X: Human Reproduction (4)

 Cell Division (Mitosis and Meiosis) (4) Summary of the Last Program (2)
The “Thing That Clings” (1)  Embryonic Stages: The “Firmly Established Lodge” (5)
“Clinging” in Other Verses (2) Villosities and Clinging (3)
 Proportionality of the “Lump” (2) The “Chewed Lump of Flesh” (2)
What’s after the “Chewed Lump of Flesh”? (8)

The Qur’an and Modern Sciences — XI: Human Reproduction (5)

The Three “Veils of Darkness” (3)  Summary of the Last Program (2)
Comparison with Sight: The Soul (10)  Formation of Senses (8)
 The Main Conclusion (1) Process of Childbirth (5)

Linguistic Miracles of the Qur’an — I: Perpetual Challenge

 Relation to Other Programs (4) Summary of the Last Program (3)
 Golden Age of Arabic (2) Meaning of Linguistic Challenge (3)
 Attempts to Imitate (3)  The Qur’anic Presentation of the Challenge (7)
Historical Illustration (3)  Pagans’ Fears of the “Magic” of the Qur’an (4)

Linguistic Miracles of the Qur’an — II: Beyond Human Capacity

 Challenging the Qur’an (3) Summary of the Last Program (2)
 Exact Style of Similarity (3) Miracles of the Qur’an (4)
Are the Styles of the Qur’an and Hadith Different? (2) Is the Style of Hadith a Miracle? (2)
 Secrets of the Qur’an (5) Difference Is Great (3)
Why Was the Qur’an Compared with Poetry? (3) The Qur’an Is Not Poetry (2)

Linguistic Miracles of the Qur’an — III: Unique Characteristics

Precision and Comprehensiveness (4) Summary of the Last Program (3)
Reason and Emotion (3) Addresses All Levels (3)
Discovery of New Meanings (3)  Legal Matters (5)
Complementary (3)

Linguistic Miracles of the Qur’an — IV: Specific Examples

 No Redundant Letters (5) Summary of the Last Program (2)
No Redundant Words (6) Another Example (6)
 Reversal in Order of Words (3) Synonyms (6)

Linguistic Miracles of the Qur’an — V: The Flow of Meanings

Apparent Lack of Symmetry and Connection (3) Summary of the Last Program (4)
 Need for Micro and Macro Approach (3) The Qur’an’s Own Context (4)
Timing of Revelation (5) Examples (8)
Other Examples (2)

Did the Qur’an Exist before Its Revelation? — I

 Proof of Divine Source (5) Summary of the Last Program (2)
 Specific Applications (14) Proof of Divine Source (8)

Did the Qur’an Exist before Its Revelation? — II

 Further Examples (4) Summary of the Last Program (4)
The Situation in Makkah and Madinah (17)  Some Additional Examples (3)

Did the Qur’an Exist before Its Revelation? — III

 Conclusion (26) Summary of the Last Program (3)

Contents of the Qur’an: Manifestation of Its Source

 Tawheed: Unique and Sublime (7) Relation to Previous Programs (2)
 The Human and the Universe (5) Prophethood and Revelation (4)
Social, Economic, and Political Aspects (3)  The Moral Aspect (9)

Preservation by Memorization

Authenticity: Meaning and Importance (3)  Summary of the Last Program (2)
Unique and Explicit Promise (3) Internal Evidence of the Preservation of the Qur’an (3)
Corroborating Evidence of Memorization (4) Evidence of Promise to Preserve by Memorization (3)
Factors That Enhanced Memorization (4)

Early Manuscript

More Evidence of Memorization (3) Summary of the Last Program (2)
Internal Evidence of Preservation in Writing (4)  Was Writing Known in the Prophet’s Time? (1)
Early Writing during the Prophet’s Time (2) Confusion between Writing and Compiling (4)
Scribes of Revelation (3)  Other Historical Evidence of Writing (8)

Compilation of Existing Manuscripts

 Writing and Compilation (3) Summary of the Last Program (3)
Abu Bakr’s Reaction (2)  Reasons for `Umar’s Compilation Proposal (2)
 Zayd’s Method of Compilation (6)  Why Was Zayd Chosen? (5)
The First Original Complete Manuscript (6) Where Was the First Manuscript Kept? (2)

Copies: `Uthman’s Time

 Where Were the Copies Sent? (6)  Summary of the Last Program (2)
 The Seven Modes of Expression (3)  Were There Different Qur’ans? (4)
 Various Interpretations of the Modes of Expression (6) Who Sanctioned These Modes? (6)

Support of `Uthman’s Decision

 Did the Modes of Expression Exist in Written Forms? (2) Summary of the Last Program (3)
 Why Were Non-Scrutinized Writings Burned? (5) Minor Differences between Modes (1)
`Uthman’s Action Did Not Suppress Evidence (4) Conformism Does Not Explain the Unanimous Support of `Uthman (4)
 Modes of Expression and Hadith (4)  Examples of Variant Modes (6)

Nothing Lost or Dropped

 Was Any Passage Forgotten before Its Promulgation? (1) Summary of the Last Program (1)
 Did the Qur’an Refer to That? (4) Forgetfulness after Promulgation (4)
 Other References (4) Further Evidence from the Qur’an (2)
Right of `Ali (5) Implication of the Unlikely Interpretation (2)
 `Ali’s Support of `Uthman (2)

Claims in Al-Kafi

What Is Al-Kafi? (2) Summary of the Last Program (3)
 Was `Ali the Only Compiler of the Entire Qur’an? (2) The Myth of Fatimah’s Mushaf (Copy of the Qur’an) (5)
Myth of the Surah on Wilayah (5) Other Claims (5)
Duty of Contemporary Shiite Leaders (1)  Myths between Rejection and Acceptance by Shiites (4)

Piecemeal Revelation of the Qur’an

Internal Evidence of Gradual Revelation (2) Summary of the Last Program (5)
 Implied Analytical Evidence (2) Terms to Denote Gradual Revelation (7)
 Why Was the Qur’an Not Revealed at Once? (11)

Arrangement of the Qur’an

How Is the Qur’an Divided? (5)  Summary of the Last Program (4)
Order of Surahs and Sequence of Revelation (3)  Comparison with the Bible (5)
 Early Literature on Arrangement (3) Dawood’s Translation of the Qur’an (4)
 Ubbay Ibn Ka`b’s “Collection” (2) `Ali’s “Private Collection” (2)

Bases of Arrangement

Arrangement by Length of Surahs (3) Summary of the Last Program (4)
 Haphazard Arrangement (3)  Arrangement by Topic (1)
 Order of Verses (2) Rejection of the Haphazard Explanation (1)
 Who Instructed the Prophet? (4) Arrangement according to Prophet’s Instructions (3)
Opinions on the Order of Surahs (5)

Discussion of Objection

 Order of Surahs 8 and 9 (5)  Summary of the Last Program (2)
 Objection Originating during the Dark Ages (3)  No Theological Implication (5)
Rodwell’s “Proof” (4) Did the Arrangement Evolve over Time? (7)
The Flow of Meaning and Style (3)

Connection between Surahs — I

The Opening Surah in the Qur’an (4) Summary of the Last Program (2)
Connections between Surahs 1 and 2 (4)  Arrangement of Surahs and the Divine Wisdom (7)
 Surahs 2, 3, 4, and 5 (2)  Surahs 2 and 3 (7)

Connection between Surahs — II

As-Suyuti’s Explanation of Connections between Surahs 1 – 9 (7) Summary of the Last Program (2)
Examples of Short Surahs (105 – 114) (6)  Opinions on Topical Connections between Surahs (12)

Connection between Surahs — III

 Harmony of Beginnings and Endings of Cognate Surahs (1) Summary of the Last Program (1)
An Attempt to Extend As-Suyuti’s Work (7)  Did As-Suyuti Examine All of the Qur’an? (2)
Surahs 21 – 26 (7) Surahs 10 – 20 (7)
 Miraculous Aspects in the Qur’an (Surahs 1 – 30) (2)

Connection between Surahs — IV

Possible Connections (Surahs 31 – 40) (9) Summary of the Last Program (2)
Beginning and End of the Same Surah (Surahs 41 – 60 (18)

Connection between Surahs — V

Connection of Subject Matter (Surahs 71 – 80) (12) Beginning and End of the Same Surah (Surahs 61 – 70) (9)
Frequency of Surahs Dealing with Certain Topics (8)

Connection between Surahs — VI

Surahs 94 – 114 (12) Summary of the Last Program (6)
Why Is the Reference by Name Not by Number? (5) Wrap-Up of the Issue of Arrangement (5)

Translations of the Qur’an — I

 How Did Translations Develop? (8) The Term “Translation” and Its Types (5)
Examples of Translation Problems (8) Unique Problems in Translating the Qur’an (5)
Background of Translators and Its Effect (2)

Translations of the Qur’an — II

Examples of Background Bias (7) Summary of the Last Program (2)
 Other Errors (9) Errors Due to Similarity between Arabic and Semitic (5)
Some Errors Contradict the Basics of Islam (4)  How Serious Are These Errors? (2)

Translations of the Qur’an — III

Prophet Noah (3) Summary of the Last Program (2)
 On Mediation (8) Definition of the Word “Islam” (6)
Other Lingering Errors (9)

Qur’anic Sciences: Introduction

Early Developments (5) Summary of the Last Program (2)
Qur’anic Sciences and Biblical High Criticism (7)  Arthur Jeffrey’s Claim (6)
The General Concept (2) Main Topics in Qur’anic Sciences (3)
Unique Aspects about the Qur’an (3)

Reasons for Revelations

 Importance of Understanding the Qur’an Correctly (5) Summary of the Last Program (2)
Verification Methods (2) Scope of the Reasons of Revelation (3)
Apparent Inconsistency of Reports (4)  Multiple Revelation with the Same Reason (6)
Apparent Discontinuity of Subject Matter (4) Reasons and Continuity of Subject Matter (2)

Makki and Madani Revelations

 More on the Connections between Topics (6) Summary of the Last Program (3)
 Examples (2) Application of the Qur’an in All Conditions (2)
Importance of Makki/Madani Distinction (3) Why Are Some Revelations Tied to Specific Events and Times? (3)
 Areas of Research (1) Criteria for Distinction (3)
Specific Examples of Research (4)

Criteria for Classification

Authenticated Reports: A Crucial Source (4) Summary of the Last Program (3)
 Analytical Criteria in Classification (7)  Judgment as an Element: Examples (9)
An Example (4)

Sub-classifications of Periods

 An-Nisaburi’s Work (1) Summary of the Last Program (2)
 Middle Makkan Period (5) Early Makkan Period (5)
Madinian Period (3) Later Makkan Period (10)
Examples of the Sub-periods (3)

Naskh (Abrogation) — I

Makki and Madani Revelations (5) Summary of the Last Program (1)
The English Equivalent (5) Relevance to Interpretation (7)
 Replacement or Delay (4)  Context of the Passage (6)

Naskh (Abrogation) — II

Implicit References to Naskh in the Qur’an (7) Summary of the Last Program (3)
 Two Extremes (4) Development of Opinions on Naskh (2)
 Methodology of Studying These Historical Reports (4) Reservation on Some Reports (3)
Specific Examples (5)

Naskh (Abrogation) — III

 Acceptable Category (2) Summary of the Last Program (3)
 Another Extreme View (5) Examples (9)
 Number of Verses in This Category (4) Acceptable Explanation (5)

Naskh (Abrogation) — IV

 No Suppression in the Matter of Belief (2)  Summary of the Last Program (3)
 The Story Was Later Fabricated by Az-Zanadeqah (7)  The Myth of Al-Gharaneeq (Five Idols) (4)
 No Other Passage in the Qur’an Confirms This Story (5) The Story Does Not Fit within the Context of the Qur’an (7)

Tafseer (Interpretation) — I

H. G. Wells’s “Compound Error” (3) Summary of the Last Program (2)
 Evolution of Tafseer (5) Sunnah and Naskh (3)
Acceptable Tafseer by Ar-Ra’i (Opinion) (5)  At-Tabari’s Methodology: Al-Ma’thur (by Traditions) (3)
Can Anybody Interpret the Qur’an? (3) The Unacceptable Category (3)

Tafseer (Interpretation) — II

 Qualifications of Interpreters (5) Summary of the Last Program (2)
Al-Muhkam and Al-Mutashabih (3)  Why Do Qualified Interpreters Differ? (2)
Examples (4)  Main Definitions (5)
Alphabetical Letters at the Beginning of Some Surahs (1) Al-Mutashabih and the Clarity of the Qur’an (2)
 Major Explanations (3)

Script and Recitation

 Ancient versus Modern Script (6)  Summary of the Last Program (2)
Reasons for Adding These Symbols (1) Vowel Symbols and Dots Were Not Needed in Early Days (2)
Printing in English (2) Developments in the Use of Dots and Vowel Symbols (3)
Bases of Qira’at and the Criteria for Their Acceptability (2)  Modes of Recitation (Qira’at) (3)
 Conclusion (3) Uses of Other Languages in the Qur’an (2)
Previous Section (H)        Next Section (J)

A) Monotheism     B) Prophethood     C) Muhammad in the Bible    D) Muslim's Beliefs

E) The Pillars of Islam     F) Social System of Islam     G) Economic System of Islam

H) Political System of Islam    I) Miracles in the Qur'an    J) Moral Teachings of Islam

K) Jesus       L) Muhammad



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