Islamic Education Resource Foundation

Dr. Jamal Badawi Presents

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Islam in 176 Hours

This material was obtained by permission from Reading Islam and Dr. Jamal Badawi

K) Jesus (peace be upon him)

Jesus in Islam — I: Introduction

Extent of Qur’anic Coverage of Jesus’s Prophethood (6)  Prophethood and Jesus (8) 
Mention of Jesus in Passages in the Qur’an (8)  Lineage of Jesus (4)
 Jesus and John the Baptist (3)

Jesus in Islam — II: Birth of Jesus

 Other Similarities between Jesus and the Baptist (4)  Summary of the Last Program (1.5)
 Pregnancy Period (8)  Was Mary Aware of Her Pregnancy? (13) 
 Reaction of Mary’s People to the Birth of Jesus (2)

Jesus in Islam — III: His Nature

 Jesus Spoke in the Cradle (6.2) Summary of the Last Program (1.6)
Uniqueness of Jesus’s Miracles Does Not Imply Divinity (4)  Jesus Was Born to a Virgin: Elaboration (3)
The Qur’an Refers to Jesus as a Spirit from Allah (5) The Qur’an Refers to Jesus as a Word from Allah (5)
 Trinity Negated by the Qur’an (5)

Jesus in Islam — IV: His Nature and Mission

Jesus’s Humanity: Evidence from the Qur’an (3)  Summary of the Last Program (2)
To Whom Was Jesus Sent? (6) Sinlessness of Jesus (5)
 Jesus’s Miracles in the Qur’an (3)  The Qur’an’s Description of Jesus’s Mission (8)
End of Jesus’s Mission (2)  Was Jesus Given a Scripture? (2)

Jesus in Islam — V: End of Jesus’s Mission

Passages from the Qur’an about Jesus’s Crucifixion (5) Summary of the Last Program (2) 
Did the Qur’an Mention Judas as the Substitute? (3)  Was Crucifixion Negated to Honor Jesus? (3)
 Later Documents Negating Crucifixion (4)  Is Jesus’s Crucifixion Negated Only in the Qur’an? (4)
Did the Qur’an Mention the Death and Resurrection of Jesus? (1)  Did Jesus Predict His Death and Resurrection? (3)
More on Death and Resurrection of Jesus in the Qur’an (4)

Jesus in Islam — VI: Ascension and Return of Jesus

 Lexical Meaning of Mutawaffika (2)  Summary of the Last Program (3)
 Raising Jesus (6)  Death of Jesus near the End of the World (3)
How Does the Muslim Believe in the Second Coming of Jesus? (2) Was Any Other Prophet Raised to Heaven? (6)
 Mention of the Second Coming of Jesus in the Qur’an (2) Second Coming of Jesus: Islam and Christianity (3)

Jesus in Islam — VII: The Second Coming of Jesus (1)

Does the Qur’an Refer to Jesus Coming Back? (6) Summary of the Last Program (2)
Return of Jesus in Hadith (5)  Further Qur’anic References (6) 
Where Will Jesus Descend? (1.3)  Time of the Second Coming of Jesus (2)
What Will Jesus Do Upon Descending to Earth? (2)  Time of the Day of Descent (3)
Other Sayings about Jesus’s Actions on Earth (2)

Jesus in Islam — VIII: The Second Coming of Jesus (2)

 Peace with His Coming (4)  Summary of the Last Program (3)
The Last Supper in the Qur’an? (3)  What Will Happen to Jesus Afterward? (4)
The Reaction of the Negus (3) Reaction of Some Christians to the Qur’anic Profile of Jesus (4)
The Passage in the Qur’an That Evoked Negus’s Tears (8)

Comparative Christology — I: Methodology

Comparison of Jesus in the Qur’an and the Bible (2)  Summary of the Last Program (2)
 Areas of Differences (3)  Areas of Similarities (5)
Taking Scriptures as They Are (2) Methodology of Studying Differences (7)
Christian Scholars’ Views (5) Qur’anic Description of Jesus (3)

Comparative Christology — II: The Qur’an and Deification

Erroneous Explanation of the Qur’an by Some Christian Writers (2) Summary of the Last Program (3)
 An Example of Misquotation (2) An Example of a Fictitious Quotation (3)
An Example of a Partial Quotation (6)  Further Examples (3)
Hellenization of the Language of the Qur’an (5)  Claims Not Sustained by the Text of the Qur’an (4)
What About the Errors in the Bible? (3)

Did Jesus Claim Divinity? — I: Approach of Study

 Methodology of Correct Interpretation of the Bible (3) Summary of the Last Program (2)
Interpreting the Bible within Its Own Context (5)  An Attempt to Avoid the Previous Pitfalls (2)
 What Has Been Said about Jesus? (4)  Classification of Proofs of the Divinity of Jesus (2)
What Did Jesus Say about Himself? (6) Evaluation of Proofs of Jesus’s Divinity (6)

Did Jesus Claim Divinity? – II: Claims Attributed to Jesus

Why Insist on Conclusive Evidence? (4)  Summary of the Last Program (3)
Similar Phraseology in the Bible (5)  “I and the Father Are One”: Comments (7)
 “I Am in the Father and the Father Is in Me”: Comments (2)  Why Did the Jews Try to Stone Jesus? (3)
Seeing Jesus Is Like Seeing God: Comments (7)

Did Jesus Claim Divinity? — III: More on “Claims”

“I Am the Way, the Truth and the Life” (5)  Summary of the Last Program (2)
 “I Existed before Abraham”: Comments (9)  Did Jesus Claim Divine Qualities? (3)
Jesus, the Son of God: The New Testament (6)  Jesus, the Son of God: The Old Testament (5)

Did Jesus Claim Divinity? — IV: Titles of Jesus

The “Only Begotten Son of God”: Comments (4)  Summary of the Last Program (2) 
 What Is Meant by Jesus’s Title “Messiah”? (4) What Is Meant by Jesus’s Title “Lord”? (1)
Evolution of Jesus’s Titles (8)  What Is Meant by Jesus’s Title “Savior”? (6)
 Prophecies of Jesus’s Coming in the Old Testament (2) Does Being Perfect Imply Being Divine? (2) 

Did Jesus Claim Divinity? — V: Other “Claims”

“My Words Will Not Pass Away”: Comments (2) Summary of the Last Program (2)
All Authority Given to Jesus: Comments (2)  Context of This Quotation (4)
What Is Meant by Jesus’s Title “Son of Man”? (3)  Did Jesus Accept People’s Worship? (6)
Did Jesus Deny That He Was God? (4)  Title Is Evidence of Humanity, Not of Divinity (6)

Did Jesus Claim Divinity? — VI: Jesus Denies Godhead

Jesus Expresses His Subordination to God (9)  Summary of the Last Program (2)
Jesus and God Are Not Equal (3)  References to Jesus as a Prophet (5)
 Jesus Himself Denied Equality with God (10)

Did Jesus Claim Divinity? — VII: Responses to Objections

 Inadequate Apologies (2)  Summary of the Last Program (1)
Did Jesus Refer to God as “God” or “Father”? (3) Examples of Responses (4)
Examples (15)  Elaboration (2) 
 Paul’s Explanation of John (2)  How Did John Explain the Old Testament’s Referring to God? (1)

Miracles and Divinity: Biblical Parallels

 Do Jesus’s Miracles Prove Divinity? (5)  Summary of the Last Program (2)
Parallels in the Bible (7)  Is Virgin Birth a Proof of Divinity? (6)
Ascension to Heaven (2) Resurrection (3)
 Differences between Miracles (3)

Evolution of Deification of Jesus — I: No Basis for Trinity

The Argument of the Last Program (3)  Summary of the Last Program (1)
Basis of Trinity in the Old Testament (4)  Meaning of Trinity (1)
 Trinity Has No Conclusive Basis in the New Testament (3) Trinity Is Alien to the Content Old Testament (5)
An Example of an Inconclusive Text (4)  Is There Conclusive Evidence of the Trinity in the New Testament? (1) 
 A Key Text That Is Now Dropped as Unauthentic (8)

Evolution of Deification of Jesus — II: Disciples and Paul

 Early Christianity (5) Summary of the Last Program (2)
References to Barnabas in the Bible (8)  Most Influential Personalities among the Disciples (5)
 Paul’s Background (6)  Barnabas and Paul (3)

Evolution of Deification of Jesus — III: Paul’s Role

Luke’s Explanation of Barnabas’s Differences with Paul (8)  Summary of the Last Program (2)
Criticizing Paul (5)  Paul Seeks Support of Other Disciples (11)
 Two Versions of Christianity (3)

Evolution of Deification of Jesus — IV: Early Unitarians (1)

 History of Christianity (3) Summary of the Last Program (3)
Early Monotheistic Tradition (1)  Why Did the Pauline Version spread? (2) 
Arius and His Convictions (2)  Early Personalities (7)
Romaine Constantine (1) Constantine and the Trinitarians (5)
New Converts Attracted to the Pauline Version (5)

Evolution of Deification of Jesus — V: Early Unitarians (2)

Reaction of the Apostolic Church to Pressures from the Pauline Church (7)  Summary of the Last Program (3)
 Followers of Meletius (2)  Survival of the Donatists in North Africa (2)
The Trinity Concept before the Council of Nicaea (2) Destruction of Objective Literature about Arius (3)
 Reaction of Arius (4)  Arius’s Debate with the Bishop of Alexandria (4)
The Purpose of the Council of Nicaea (4)

Evolution of Deification of Jesus — VI: The Council of Nicaea

 The Setting of the Council of Nicaea (5) Summary of the Last Program (3)
Officially Endorsing the Concept of Trinity (4) An Example of the Debate (5)
The Choice of Gospels in the Council (4)  Role of Constantine in the Council (4)
 Why Did Other Gospels Perish? (4)

Evolution of Deification of Jesus — VII: Other Major Councils

 The Period between Nicaea and Constantinople (3)  Summary of the Last Program (2)
Council of Ephesus (431) (4)  Constantinople I: Circumstances and Decisions (6)
Council Is Unsure: Is Jesus Human or Divine? (4)  Struggle and Conflict (4)
The Debate on the Two Natures of Jesus (4)  Council of Chalcedon (451) (3)

Evolution of Deification of Jesus — VIII: Later Councils

 The Second Council of Constantinople (4) Summary of the Last Program (3)
 Other Catholic Councils (3)  Later Councils Continue the Debate (6)
Further Split in the Western Church: The Reformation (7) Split between the Eastern and Western Church (2)
 How Did the Reformation Pick Up? (4)

Later Unitarians — I: Servetus

Unitarians and the Reformation (1)  Summary of the Last Program (3)
How Did Servetus Share His Views? (5)  Servetus and His Upbringing (4)
How Did Servetus Earn His Living? (1.4)  How Did Servetus Express His Views? (3)
Servetus’s Writings (5)  Servetus and Calvin (6)

Later Unitarians — II: Francis David

Servetus Defends His Convictions (6)  Summary of the Last Program (1.4)
Francis David: A Contemporary of Servetus (5) Some Unitarians Embrace Islam (6)
David: The Deification of Jesus Is Unbiblical (4)  Francis David: A Formidable Debater (2)
The Death of Francis David (2)  Impact of Francis David’s Debates (3)

Later Unitarians — III: Sozzini and Socinus

Influence of Islam on David (2)  Summary of the Last Program (2)
Who Was Socinus? (3)  Lelio Sozzini and His Secret Society (3)
Socinus: Jesus Is Divine (3) Socinus’s Views on the Trinity (6)
Church’s Reaction (3) Socinus’s Views on Other Doctrines (8)

Later Unitarians — IV: John Briddle

Other Later Unitarians (1)  Summary of the Last Program (1.3)
Why Were Briddle’s Writings “Dangerous”? (9)  John Briddle and His Background (3)
What Happened to John Briddle Next? (4) Briddle’s Writings Close to Islam: Elaboration (5)
What Were Milton’s Views? (3)  Briddle’s Followers after His Death (4)

Later Unitarians — V: Emlyn and Lindsey

 Other Contemporaries of Briddle (6) Summary of the Last Program (1) 
More on Emlyn (8) Thomas Emlyn (4)
Lindsey’s Views on Jesus (2)  Lindsey and His Background (1.3)
An Example of His Passionate Writings (2)  Lindsey’s Writings (4)

Later Unitarians — VI: Joseph Priestly

 Joseph Priestly: Background (3)  Summary of the Last Program (2)
Priestly’s Major Contributions (6)  Why Was the Church Angered by Priestly’s Writings? (3)
Priestly: Jesus Is Not Divine (6)  Biblical Support of Priestly’s Views (8)
 Other Evidence That Jesus Was Not Divine (2)

Later Unitarians — VII: William Channing

Priestly’s Views on the Trinity (3)  Summary of the Last Program (1)
Channing’s Views on the Trinity (5) Channing’s Background (4) 
The Nature of Jesus (5)  Impact of the Trinity on Devotion to God (5)
Reaction in America to Unitarianism (3) Channing’s Views on Atonement (4)

Trinity, Atonement, and Blood Sacrifice — I: The Trinity (1)

Why Was Trinity Viewed as Unbiblical? (3) Connection of This Series to the Previous Series (3)
Modes of Self-Disclosure (8)  Distinctness vs. Unity (6)
 Analogy with Father, Husband, and Son (4)  Persons vs. Attributes (3)
 Does Trinity Resemble the Body, Soul, and Spirit? (1)  Three Forms of Water: One Essence (2)

Trinity, Atonement, and Blood Sacrifice — II: The Trinity (2)

 Entity, Soul, and Body (1) Summary of the Last Program (4)
No Prospect of Any Intelligible Explanation (3)  The Cubes and the Squares (4)
Is Trinity Compatible with Monotheism? (5)  Another Explanation (10) 
 Conclusion (4)

Trinity, Atonement, and Blood Sacrifice — III: Sin and Atonement (1)

Outline of the Doctrine (4) Summary of the Last Program (3)
Counter Evidence from the Old Testament (7) Suggested Evidence from the Old Testament (9)
Was It Taught by Jesus? (4)  Did Jesus Himself Choose the Doctrine? (2)
 Jesus and the Doctrine of Substitution (2)

Trinity, Atonement, and Blood Sacrifice — IV: Sin and Atonement (2)

Counter Evidence from the New Testament (2)  Summary of the Last Program (3)
Paul’s Views on Sin and Atonement (6)  Role of Paul (3)
Other New Testament Writers: Luke (5) Other New Testament Writers: Peter (5)
Comparison with John’s Views (6)

Trinity, Atonement, and Blood Sacrifice — V: Sin and Atonement (3)

The Book of James (4) Summary of the Last Program (3)
Was Satan a Fallen Angel? (3)  Paul’s Assumptions about Human Nature (4)
The “Logic” of the Doctrine (6)  Paul’s Assumptions about Divine Attributes (2)
 Other Problems (8)

Trinity, Atonement, and Blood Sacrifice — VI: Sin and Atonement (4)

 Did God “Empty Himself”? (3) Summary of the Last Program (3)
Partial “Emptying”: Equally Problematic (3) Is That Consistent with Divinity? (5)
God “Can Do Anything” (3) God “Sharing” Human Life (3)
Nineham’s Views on Sinlessness (8) A Possible Allegory (2)

Trinity, Atonement, and Blood Sacrifice — VII: Sin and Atonement (5)

Other Examples of Conflict (2)  Summary of the Last Program (3)
Birth without a Father (4)  Logical Responses to Sinlessness (3)
The Book of Job on Sinlessness (5)  Sinlessness of Mary (4)
History Negates Paul’s Idea (2)  Adam and Jesus (4)
Was It a Gradual Revelation? (1)  Was Incarnation the Climax? (1)

Trinity, Atonement, and Blood Sacrifice — VIII: Sin and Atonement (6)

Timing of Sacrifice (3)  Summary of the Last Program (4)
Why Did God Choose This Particular Way to Forgive Mankind? (5)  Are Those Who Died before Jesus Saved? (6)
 Problems with These Attempts (5)  Attempts to Justify the Doctrine (3)
Removal of the Effect of the Original Sin (2)

Trinity, Atonement, and Blood Sacrifice — IX: Crucifixion (1)

Do All Believers Believe That Jesus Was Crucified? (5) Summary of the Last Program (2)
Analyzing Prophecies Referring to the Crucifixion of Jesus (8) Analyzing the Prophecies in Any Religious Book (2)
Is There Any Other Psalm Prophesizing the Crucifixion? (5) “Purest My Hands and Feet” and Crucifixion (5)
Prophecies Suggesting That Judas Was Crucified Not Jesus (2)

Trinity, Atonement, and Blood Sacrifice — X: Crucifixion (2)

Psalms 35, 37, and 41: Prophesizing Deliverance of the Righteous (5)  Summary of the Last Program (3)
 Psalms 69: Who Is the Speaker? (7)  Psalms 9, 20, 21, and 109: Reference to Judas’s Crucifixion (8)
Psalms 91: Angels to Lift Up the Righteous before Crucifixion (3) Psalms 38: A Commonly Mistaken Explanation (2)
 Conclusions (1)

Trinity, Atonement, and Blood Sacrifice — XI: Crucifixion (3)

 A Misapplied Prophecy in Matthew 27 (5) Summary of the Last Program (2)
Prophecies Applied by Mistake to Jesus (6)  Relating All Prophecies to Jesus (5)
 Context of the Prophecies (3)  Isaiah 7:14 and the Virgin Birth (7)

Trinity, Atonement, and Blood Sacrifice — XII: Crucifixion (4)

Other Examples of Forced Interpretations (6)  Summary of the Last Program (2)
Variations in Biblical Versions (8) Other Examples of Forced Interpretations (4)
Prophecies That Apply to a Specific Prophet (2)  Prophecies That Apply to Many Prophets (8)

Trinity, Atonement, and Blood Sacrifice — XIII: Crucifixion (5)

 Deuteronomy 18:18 (5)  Summary of the Last Program (3)
Coming of Jesus in the Old Testament (3)  Context of Isaiah 42 (6)
Attempts: The Book of Isaiah (4) Everlasting Father (6)
Expectations of the Return of Jesus (1) Rahmatullah’s Views on the Signs of Jonah (3)

Trinity, Atonement, and Blood Sacrifice — XIV: Crucifixion (6)

Crucifixion in the New Testament (7)  Summary of the Last Program (5)
Inconsistencies in the Crucifixion Story (1.4) Problems of Authenticity of the Crucifixion Story (3)
The Preliminaries of Crucifixion (3)  Examples of Inconsistencies (2.5)
 Differences in the Preliminaries of Crucifixion (9)

Trinity, Atonement, and Blood Sacrifice — XV: Crucifixion (7)

Five Variations of the Last Supper (8)  Summary of the Last Program (2)
Three Variations of the Trial (6)  Four Variations of the Arrest (11)
 Problems in the Trial (2)

Trinity, Atonement, and Blood Sacrifice — XVI: Crucifixion (8)

Seven Variations of the Crucifixion (11)  Summary of the Last Program (2)
Problems with History (5)  Problems with the Contents (8)
Order to Break the Legs (3)

Trinity, Atonement, and Blood Sacrifice — XVII: Resurrection (1)

Were These Later Additions? (8)  Summary of the Last Program (3)
 Six Variations of the Story (3) The Resurrection Story (2)
 Other Reservations about Resurrection (4)  When Did the Women Go? (6)
Reports of Sightings of Jesus (4)

Trinity, Atonement, and Blood Sacrifice — XVIII: Resurrection (2

Story May Be a Later Addition (1.4) Summary of the Last Program (2)
John’s Version of the Story (3)  Improbabilities in the Story (7)
Areas of Agreement (3)  Four Questions (6)
 Why Be Surprised If Crucifixion and Resurrection Were Foretold? (4)

Trinity, Atonement, and Blood Sacrifice — XIX: Resurrection (3)

Did Jesus Foretell His Crucifixion and Resurrection? (3)  Summary of the Last Program (4)
 If Jesus Was Crucified, Where Was He between His Death and Resurrection? (5)  Where Is Judas’s Body and Why Was the Tomb Empty? (8)
 Other Historical Sources of the Story (3)  Theological Controversy of Crucifixion (6)

Trinity, Atonement, and Blood sacrifice — XX: Roots of “God Incarnate” (1)

How Do We Know the Story Was a Later Addition? (3)  Summary of the Last Program (3)
Why Is That an Insertion? (3)  Josephus’s Views on Crucifixion (3)
Mythology of Sun Worship (5)  Roots of the “Redeeming Son of God” Idea (3)
The Myth of Osiris and Mithra (10)  Specific Examples (10)

Trinity, Atonement, and Blood Sacrifice — XXI: Roots of “God Incarnate” (2)

The Baal Myth (4)  Summary of the Last Program (3)
Krishna as Incarnation of Vishnu (4)  Similar Myths in Ancient Mexico (2)
 Meaning of the Term “Myth” (3)  Buddha as Savior (7)
Contemporary Views (2)  Use of Myth in Theology (6)

Trinity, Atonement, and Blood Sacrifice — XXII: Roots of “God Incarnate” (3)

God Incarnate and Christianity (2)  Summary of the Last Program (3)
Eschatology and Gnosticism (2) Goulder’s “Two Roots” (6)
Is Their Importance Downplayed in the New Testament? (3)  Who Are the Samaritans? (2)
Impact of Their Theology on the Early Development of Christianity (7) Meaning of “Samaritan Theology” (4)

Trinity, Atonement, and Blood Sacrifice — XXIII: Roots of “God Incarnate” (4)

Influence of Samaritan Theology (2)  Summary of the Last Program (4)
A Historical Perspective (3)  Paul’s Interaction with the Samaritan Theology (9)
Variations in Paul’s Explanation (6)  What’s the Nature of the Different Explanations? (1)
 Progression in Perceiving the Nature of Jesus (5)

Trinity, Atonement, and Blood Sacrifice — XXIV: Roots of “God Incarnate” (5)

Goulder and Explanation of God Incarnate (6)  Summary of the Last Program (5)
God Incarnate and the Cultural Climate (2) Other Roots Suggested by Young (3)
 Earlier Clues Influencing the New Testament (7)  Mysterious Disappearance and Not Transfiguration (4)
Ideas Traced to an Earlier Greco-Roman Period (3)

Trinity, Atonement, and Blood Sacrifice — XXV: Roots of “God Incarnate” (6)

The Hellenistic Ruler Cult Language (2)  Summary of the Last Program (3)
Archaeology vs. Theology (2) Examples of Historical Evidence (4)
The Divine Men Myth (5)  Pre-Christian Titles Taken Seriously (2)
Some Evidence to Support This Idea (3) Judaic and Gentile Influence (5)
 How He Arrived to This Position (5)  Influence of Hellenistic Myth on Jews (2)

Trinity, Atonement, and Blood Sacrifice — XXVI: Roots of “God Incarnate” (7)

 Reconciliation with the Burial of Moses (2) Summary of the Last Program (3)
Parallels between Enoch and Jesus (5)  The Ascension of Enoch and Elijah (4)
Jewish Angel: Speculation and Christology (4) Conclusions on Examination of Jewish Sources (3)
 What Kind of Inspiration to Christology (2) Other Examples of Jewish Influence (7)

Trinity, Atonement, and Blood Sacrifice — XXVII: Roots of “God Incarnate” (8)

 Hypostatization of Wisdom in the Bible (2)  Summary of the Last Program (3)
 Cultural Atmosphere of the Idea of God Incarnate (2)  The Greek Logos (3)
Explanation of Writers (5) Common Elements with Christology (3)
Some Writers’ Opinions about God Incarnate (4)  Apologetic Responses (4)
 Influence of Ancient Mythology (3)

Trinity, Atonement, and Blood Sacrifice — XXVIII: The Islamic Perspective

Sin and Rebellion (3)  Summary of the Last Program (3)
Is Salvation Achieved by Good Deeds? (6) Deliverance (Najah) in the Qur’an (2)
The Requirement of Justice (4)  The Qur’an on Forgiveness (3)
Examples of Assurance of Salvation from the Qur’an (3) Are Muslims Assured of Salvation? (4)

The Question of Mystery

One More Argument to the Divinity of Jesus (2) Summary of the Last Program (2)
 The Argument for Mystery (2)  The Basis of Personal Experience (1)
How Would You React to This Explanation? (2) Meaning of Mystery (2)
Comparison of Mystery and Trinity (3)  Is the Trinity a Mystery? (3)
Many Dogmas Were Articulated Intellectually by Humans (3)  Some Examples of the Question (5)
 The Role of Mystery (2)

Authority and Authenticity of the Scriptures — I

Purpose of Examination (7)  Summary of the Last Program (2)
Application of These Criteria to the Qur’an (3) Relevant Criteria in Examination (6)
Authority of the Bible, New Testament (4)  Authority of the Bible, Old Testament (5)
 Other Evidence from the New Testament (2)

Authority and Authenticity of the Scriptures — II

 Factual Errors in the Old Testament (3)  Summary of the Last Program (1.4)
Inconsistencies in the New Testament (3)  Inconsistencies in the Old Testament (4)
 Authenticity (3) Prophecies That Were Not Realized (3)
 Problem of Authorship and Witness (5)  Biblical Versions (6)
Modifications and Transformations (1)
Previous Section (J)        Next Section (L)

A) Monotheism     B) Prophethood     C) Muhammad in the Bible    D) Muslim's Beliefs

E) The Pillars of Islam     F) Social System of Islam     G) Economic System of Islam

H) Political System of Islam    I) Miracles in the Qur'an    J) Moral Teachings of Islam

K) Jesus       L) Muhammad

 

 

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