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Dr. Jamal Badawi Presents

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Islam in 176 Hours

This material was obtained by permission from Reading Islam and Dr. Jamal Badawi

L) Muhammad (peace be upon him)

Muhammad and the Abrahamic Tree — I: Introduction

Conclusion of Previous Series (4) No One Can Change the Word of God (9) 
Muhammad’s Mission Compared to Previous Missions (2)  Relation to Previous Series (7)
 Abraham and Muhammad (6)

Muhammad and the Abrahamic Tree — II: Paran, Bakkah, and Ishmael

 Muhammad in the Bible: Elaboration (3)  Summary of the Last Program (2)

Settlement of Ishmael in Makkah (10)

Mention of Makkah in the Bible (13)
 Objections to Prophecies about Muhammad (1)

Muhammad and the Abrahamic Tree — III: Attempts to Exclude Ishmael

Objections to Prophecies about Muhammad (Continued) (16)  Summary of the Last Program (2)
 Ishmael: The Son of Sacrifice (6)  Attitudes of Biblical Authors (4)

Muhammad and the Abrahamic Tree — IV: Moses’s Prophecy about Muhammad

 Summary of the Last Program (6)

Summary of the Last Program (3)
Context of Deuteronomy 18:18 (3)  Responses to Objections about Prophecies about Muhammad (10) 
 Another Objection to Prophecies about Muhammad (6)

Muhammad and the Abrahamic Tree — V: Isaiah’s Prophecies

Prophecies in Isaiah: The First Prophecy (9) Summary of the Last Program (2)
Second Prophecy in Isaiah (10)  More on the Objections and Responses (4)
 Third Prophecy in Isaiah (3)  Others Objections to the Prophecies (1)

Muhammad and the Abrahamic Tree — VI: Isaiah and John

More on Isaiah 42:11 (6)  Summary of the Last Program (3)
 That Prophet Referred to Muhammad (7) Objections and Responses (8) 
 John the Baptist and Jesus (3)

Jesus on the Coming of Muhammad — I

The Paraclete: Only in Gospel of John? (4) Summary of the Last Program (3)
Traditional Interpretation of the Prophecy (3) Profile of the Paraclete (5)
Greek Origin of the Word “Paraclete” (3)  Is the Paraclete the Same as the Holy Spirit? (7)
 Why Didn’t the Disciples Need a Comforter? (4)

Jesus on the Coming of Muhammad — II

Inconsistent Translations of “Paraclete” (4)  Summary of the Last Program (3) 
Futile Attempts to Reconcile Inconsistencies (7)  Translation Problem Recognized by Biblical Scholars (4)
Use of Masculine Pronoun to Refer to God (2) Paraclete in John 14:26 (8)

Jesus on the Coming of Muhammad — III

 Use of Masculine Pronoun to Refer to Paraclete (4)  Summary of the Last Program (3)
Why Was the Possibility of a Translation Error Discarded? (8)  Paraclete and the Holy Spirit in John 14:26 (5)
Spirit of Truth: The “Holy Spirit”? (4)  Spirit of Truth: A Human? (6)

Jesus on the Coming of Muhammad — IV

 Lexical Meaning of Spirit of Truth (4) Summary of the Last Program (3) 
The Wording Variation of John 14:26 (3)  Is the Paraclete the Same as the Spirit of Truth? (3)
More Historical Evidence: Montanus (2)  Historical Evidence That the Paraclete Is a Human (4)
 Why Does the Prophecy Point to Muhammad in Particular? (9)

Jesus on the Coming of Muhammad — V

Objections to the Identity of the Paraclete and Responses (12) Summary of the Last Program (2)
Possibility of Translation Error (3)  More Objections to the Analysis of the Paraclete (7)
 Further Indicators of Variations (4) 

Jesus on the Coming of Muhammad — VI

Periclytus: Not the Main Argument (4) Summary of the Last Program (2)
Comparison between John and an Ancient Copy of the Gospel (6)  An 8th Century Document Derived from an Ancient Copy of the Gospel (3)
Was Barnabas a Disciple? (5)  Who Was Barnabas? (4)
 Description of Barnabas (6)

Jesus on the Coming of Muhammad — VII: The Gospel of Barnabas (1)

 Conflict between Barnabas and Paul (5)  Summary of the Last Program (4)
Traces of the Gospel before 1709 (5)  Discovery of the Gospel (4) 
 Comparison of Barnabas and Canonical Gospels (8) Why Was the Gospel of Barnabas Labeled Apocryphal? (3)

Jesus on the Coming of Muhammad — VIII: The Gospel of Barnabas (2)

Hesitation to Give Detailed Account of Barnabas (2) Summary of the Last Program (2)
The Question of Recognition of Judas (7)  Mistaken Arrest of Judas (5)
Description of the Crucifixion (2)  Pilate’s and Herod’s Disbelief of Judas (2)
Judas’s Body and the Empty Tomb (1)  Reaction of the Disciples to the Crucifixion (2)
Appearance of Jesus after Salvation from the Cross (3) 

Jesus on the Coming of Muhammad — IX: Jesus Appears to the Disciples

Why Were the Disciples Tormented? (4) Summary of the Last Program (2)
Was Jesus Seen by Others? (3)  Jesus Instructs Barnabas to Write the True Gospel (2)
Jesus Names Muhammad (4) Disciples after the Crucifixion and Appearance of Jesus (1)
The Son of Sacrifice Was Ishmael (5)  Other References (5)

Jesus on the Coming of Muhammad — X: Objections to Gospel of Barnabas and Responses

Objections to the Gospel of Barnabas (8)  Summary of the Last Program (3)
Objection Related to Internal Evidence (5)  Other Objections (4) 
Other Weak Objections (9)

Jesus on the Coming of Muhammad — XI: Integrity of the Gospel of Barnabas

Critics to the Gospel of Barnabas (9)  Summary of the Last Program (1)
Gospel Banned by Gelasius I (5)  Mention of Barnabas’s Gospel in Pre-Islamic Era (3)
The Dead Sea Scrolls: Elaboration (3)  References Questioning the Integrity of the Gospel of Barnabas (6)

Jesus on the Coming of Muhammad — XII: Essenic Terminology in Barnabas

Examples of Essenic Terminology in Barnabas (3) Summary of the Last Program (2)
Essences Expected Two Messiahs (2)  Jesus and the Essenes (4) 
The Baptist’s Words or Jesus’s? (8) The Two Messiahs in Barnabas (9)

Jesus on the Coming of Muhammad — XIII: Authenticity of the Gospel of Barnabas

Baptist’s Version vs. Jesus’s: Which Is More Accurate? (7) Summary of the Last Program (2)
Is Barnabas Free from Any Criticism? (4)  Is Barnabas Free from Such Problems? (3)
Was Barnabas the Original Gospel? (8) Comparison with the Canonized Gospels (6)

Jesus on the Coming of Muhammad — XIV: Barnabas and Christology

Is Barnabas Interesting to Muslims Only? (4)  Summary of the Last Program (2)
Consistency with Unitarian Theme (6)  Search for the True Gospel (3) 
Godfrey Higgins’s Work (in Agreement with Barnabas) (2)  Other Related Apocryphal Gospels (7)
 Higgins Believes Muhammad Is a Successor to Jesus (3)

Jesus on the Coming of Muhammad — XV: Higgins’s Work

Higgins’s Views on the Paraclete (4) Summary of the Last Program (2)
Common Knowledge about the Prophecy (5) Higgins’s Views on Haggai’s Prophecy (4)
Comparison of Higgins and Gospel of Barnabas (4)  Context of Haggai 2:7 (6) 
 Other Ancient Scriptures on Prophecies (1)

Muhammad in Ancient Scriptures — I: Zoroastrian and Buddhist Scriptures

Non-Monotheistic Scriptures (5) Summary of the Last Program (3)
Saoshyant = Praiseworthy = Muhammad (5) Zoroastrian Scriptures (4)
 Prophecy about Muhammad Attributed to Buddha (2)  Was Buddha a Prophet? (4)
 Hindu Scriptures (2)

Muhammad in Ancient Scriptures — II: Prophecies in Hindu Scriptures

Prophecies Relevant to the Advent of Muhammad (2)  Summary of the Last Program (2)
Other Prophecies from Hindu Scriptures (3)  Muhammad Mentioned in Upanishad (3) 
Summary of the Series (9)  Muhammad Mentioned in the Veda (7)

Methodology of Studying Seerah — I: Introduction

Characteristics of Seerah (9)  Meaning of Seerah and Its Importance (8)
Caution When Handling Non-Muslim Islamic Literature (6)  Benefit of Seerah to Non-Muslims (4)

Methodology of Studying Seerah — II: Problems with Orientalism

Errors in Methodology (5) Summary of the Last Program (1)
Errors Recognized by Other Orientalists (6)  Possible Reasons for Errors (3)
The Negative Approach (6)  Some Problems Linger (4)
 Materialistic Interpretation of History (4)

Methodology of Studying Seerah — III: Problems with Some Muslim Writings

More on the Materialistic Interpretation (5)  Summary of the Last Program (4) 
Problems with Some Recent Muslim Writings (7)  Problems with Some Ancient Writings (8)
 Haykal’s Stated Approach (4)

Methodology of Studying Seerah — IV: Problems with Haykal’s Approach (1)

 Grounds for Haykal’s Rejection of Muhammad’s Miracles (3)  Summary of the Last Program (2)
Sources Haykal Used in His Writings (3) Response to Haykal’s Rejection (6)
Qur’an Confirms Muhammad’s Miracles (7)  Haykal’s Misinterpretation of the Qur’an (7)

Methodology of Studying Seerah — V: Problems with Haykal’s Approach (2)

Haykal’s Argument about Hadith (5)  Summary of the Last Program (2)
The Issue of Methodological Elaboration (3)  Haykal’s Approach Is Not Scientific (8)
The Attack on Makkah by Abraha (4)  David Hume on Authentic Extraordinary Reports (3) 
Haykal’s Views on the Attack on Makkah (2)

Methodology of Studying Seerah — VI: Sources of Seerah (1)

Why Criticize Haykal’s Work in Particular? (7)  Summary of the Last Program (2)
Degrees of Authenticity (6)  Sources of Seerah (5)
Some of the Earliest Biographers (5) Early Reports on Seerah (3)

Methodology of Studying Seerah — VII: Sources of Seerah (2)

Role of Ibn Hisham (2)  Summary of the Last Program (3)
 Ibn Hisham Preserving the Biography Written by Ibn Ishaq (5)  Background about Ibn Ishaq (5)
Basic Approaches Used by Early Biographers (4)  Availability of Ibn Hisham’s and Ibn Ishaq’s Writings (4)
Examples of General Common Approaches (3) Some Recent References (2) 

The World at the Advent of Muhammad — I: The Two Superpowers

The World’s State during the 6th Century (3)  Summary of the Last Program (3)
Hinduism, Buddhism, Confucianism, and Zoroastrianism (4)  Judaism and Christianity (4)
The Two Superpowers: Roman and Persian (3) Socio-political Climate of That Time (5)
Socio-political Setting in Other Nations (5)

The World at the Advent of Muhammad — II: Europe and Arabia

 Situation in Europe (4)  Summary of the Last Program (3)
Social Life in Arabia (6)  Religious Scene in Arabia (8)
Why Was Arabia Chosen for the Birth of the Last Prophet? (8)

Anticipations and Signs

Anticipations of Muhammad’s Coming among the Arabs (4)  Summary of the Last Program (2)
Unusual Events Preceding His Birth (13)  Brief Account of the Biblical Prophecies (6)
 Some Signs at the Time of Birth and after It (3)

Birth and Early Childhood — I

Signs on the Night of His Birth (7)  Summary of the Last Program (2)
Was Prophet Muhammad’s Nobility Significant? (4) Prophet Muhammad’s Ancestors (6)
Day of Birth (2) Circumstances That Made the Prophet an Orphan (2)
 Muhammad before His Birth (2) Why Was He Named Muhammad? (3)

Birth and Early Childhood — II

Were Others Named Muhammad Before? (3)  Summary of the Last Program (2)
Was Muhammad His Birth Name or an Adopted One? (4)  Significance of the Name Ahmad (2)
Why Was Prophet Muhammad Rejected by the Other Women? (3)  Prophet Muhammad’s Early Childhood (3)
His Stay with Haleemah (5)  Reason for the Suckling Practice (3)
Other Events in Muhammad’s Childhood (2)  The Splitting of the Chest (3)

Birth and Early Childhood — III

 Mother’s Reaction to the Events of Early Childhood (2)  Summary of the Last Program (2)
 Responses to These Objections (6)  Objections to the Reports on Childhood (2)
Significance of the Splitting of the Chest Incident (4)  Authenticity of the Report (4)
The Prophet’s Stay with His Mother Till Her Death (2) Why Was It Repeated? (4)

Birth and Early Childhood — IV

In the Custody of His Grandfather (4)  Summary of the Last Program (2)
 The Significance of the Early Suffering (3)  In the Custody of His Uncle (2)
Nobility without Affluence (5) Any Possible Negative Impact due to Hard Childhood? (4)
 Importance of Being a Shepherd (7)  The Prophet Becomes a Shepherd (2)

His Youth — I

The Prophet Becomes a Merchant (3)  Summary of the Last Program (2)
Story of Bahirah the Monk (8)   Trips with His Uncle (2)
His Position on His People’s Beliefs (3)  A Critique of Orientalists’ Inferences (8)
 His Behavior as a Young Man (3)

His Youth — II

Protection from Temptation (3) Summary of the Last Program (2)
The Sacrilegious War (5)  Significance of the Story (8)
Other Invocations of the Pact (1) Pact of Chivalry (4)
Lessons from the Pact (5)

Marriage to Khadijah

An Earlier Proposal (2)  Summary of the Last Program (2)
Her Offer for Him to Lead Her Caravan (1) Khadijah Hears about Him (3)
Results of the Trip (3) Extraordinary Events on the Trip (6)
A Dignified Proposal (2)  Khadijah’s Background before Her Marriage to Muhammad (2)
His Physical Appearance (5)  The Conversation between Khadijah and Muhammad (4)

Life in His Household

 Relevance of Physical Appearance (3)  Summary of the Last Program (1)
 Observation of the Prophet in Sleep (3) Relation between Appearance and Prophecies (4)
Who Was Zayd? (4)  His Life with Khadijah (2)
 Visitors to the Prophet’s Household (3) Zayd’s Decision (2)
 `Ali Joins the Household (3)

The Prophet’s Marriages — I

Criticisms of the Prophet’s Polygamous Marriages (6)  Summary of the Last Program (1)
Marital Life Was Mostly Monogamous (3)  The Issue of Polygamy (17)
 The Prophet’s Marriages Were Not a Pursuit of Pleasure (2)

The Prophet’s Marriages — II

Inferences from His Marriage to Khadijah (5)  Summary of the Last Program (3)
After the Death of Khadijah (4)  Comments on the Prophet’s Relationship with Khadijah (5)
Circumstances of the Prophet’s Marriage to Sawdah (5) The Prophet’s Marriage to Sawdah (2)
Polygamous vs. Monogamous Periods (4)

The Prophet’s Marriages — III

 The Prophet’s Marriage to `A’ishah (2) Summary of the Last Program (3)
Why `A’ishah? (4)  The Age Difference between the Prophet and `A’ishah (5)
 Marriages to Hafsah and Zaynab bint Khuzaymah, Widows (8)  Her Service to Islam (5)
The Prophet’s Marriage to Umm Salamah, a Widow (2)

The Prophet’s Marriages — IV

Umm Salamah, a Widow (5) Summary of the Last Program (2)
Compassion to Those in Bondage (7) Umm Habibah (Widow) and Maimunoh (Reconciling with Najd) (6)
 Safiyyah and Rayhannah (Banu An-Nadeer) (4)  Juwayriah (Banu Al-Mustaliq) (6)

Prophet’s Marriages — V

Maryam, a Christian (3) Summary of the Last Program (1)
Orientalists and Marriage to Zaynab bint Jahsh (3)  Non-consummated Marriages (3)
 Early Origin of the Story (4)  A Fabricated Version of That Marriage (5)
 Methodology for Verification (3)  Flaws and Illogicalities of the Story (5)

Prophet’s Marriages — VI

The Prophet Pressured Zaynab to Marry Zayd (4)  Summary of the Last Program (2)
Marital Problems (3)  Why Did the Prophet Pressure Zaynab to Marry Zayd? (2)
Adoption vs. Fosterage (3)  The Prophet Urged Zayd to Reconcile with Zaynab (4)
Changing the Custom of Adoption (2)  Objections to Adoption (6)
 Prophet Was Commanded to Marry Zaynab after Her Divorce (2)

Prophet’s Marriages — VII

Evidence That Marriage to Zaynab Was Not His Choice (2) Summary of the Last Program (2)
Did the Prophet Hide an Affection for Zaynab? (4) Reasons for This Marriage Explicitly Mentioned in the Qur’an (3)
 Proof of the Divine Source of the Qur’an (2) Futility of Orientalist’s Explanations (8)
 Other Possible Meanings (3)  Meaning of the Prophet’s Worries (4)

The Prophet’s Marriages — VIII

Why Was the Prophet Married to More Than Four? (5)  Summary of the Last Program (3)
Why Did the Prophet Remain Married to All His Wives? (4)  Was There a Qur’anic Exception for the Prophet? (5)
 Other Justifications (3)  Justification for This Exception (5)
 The Prophet’s Life Testifies to the Absence of Indulgence (6)

The Prophet’s Marriages — IX

 Lessons to Leaders (2)  Summary of the Last Program (3)
 The Qur’an Gives Them the Choice to Stay with the Prophet (3) The Prophet Rejects His Wives’ Demands (2)
 Summing Up of Marriages (17)

Between Marriage and the Call — I

 The Life of the Prophet before Revelation (1)  Summary of the Last Program (1)
Ka`bah’s Reconstruction during the Prophet’s Time (2)  History of the Ka`bah (6)
 Were Any Relics Found after Demolishing the Ka`bah? (4)  Hesitation and Fear to Rebuild the Ka`bah (4)
 Significance of the Prophet’s Participation in Rebuilding the Ka`bah (4) The Prophet’s Participation in Rebuilding the Ka`bah (2)
 A Serious Dispute in Rebuilding the Ka`bah (3)

Between Marriage and the Call — II

 The Prophet Solves the Dispute (2)  Summary of the Last Program (3)
The Black Stone (3)  Indications of the Prophet’s Wisdom (5)
 Solitude at the Cave of Hira’ (1)  Periods of Solitude (2)
 Significance of Solitude (6) Khadijah’s Stance on Periods of Solitude (1)
 Meditation and Individual Character (1)

Call to Prophethood

 How Did the Prophet Worship in Hira’? (4)  Summary of the Last Program (2)
Details of the First Revelation (7)  Other Extraordinary Experiences (3)
 Variant Narrations (6) The First Revelation: Evidence of the Source of the Qur’an (3)
Prophet Tells Khadijah about the First Revelation (2) Prophet’s Reaction to the First Revelation (4)

Early Revelation

Khadijah’s Reaction to the First Revelation (2) Summary of the Last Program (1)
Temporary Cessation of Revelation (3)  Waraqah’s Explanation (5)
 Why Was the Prophet Meant to See Gabriel? (3) Reasons for the Temporary Cessation (2)
Passages from the Qur’an Referring to Revelation (5) Why Was the Prophet Terrified by Gabriel? (3)
 Biases in Interpreting Revelation (5)

The Claim to Prophethood — I

 Religious Claims and Reason (4)  Summary of the Last Program (3)
 Reason Supports Muhammad’s Claims (6)  Elaboration about the Qur’an (2)
Absence of Motives to Fabricate the Qur’an (6) Impossibility of Fabrication of the Qur’an (4)
Claims That the Revelation Was Epilepsy (1) Epilepsy Does Not Explain Revelation (3)

The Claims to Prophethood — II

The Qur’an Does Not Reflect the Prophet’s Mind (2) Summary of the Last Program (3)
 Comparison of Qur’anic and Biblical Prophecies (5) Realized Prophecies (2)
Was Muhammad Teaching What He Learned from Others? (3)  Psychological Analysis Proves That the Qur’an Was Not Fabricated (3)
Corroborating Evidence (3) Useful Historical Data (7)

The Early Makkan Period — I

Parallels with the Bible (9)  Summary of the Last Program (2)
 `Ali’s Father Rejects Islam but Encourages `Ali to Join (3) Khadijah and `Ali: The First Believers (10)
Abu Bakr: The First Believer outside the Prophet’s Household (4)  Zayd Accepts Islam (1)

The Early Makkan Period — II

 Other Early Muslims (6) Summary of the Last Program (1)
 How Did They Worship Allah (3)  Why a Small Number Joined Islam in a Long Time (4)
 Why the Secrecy in Joining Islam? (3)  The House of Al-Arqam (2)
 Relevance of the Early Period to Muslims in the West (6)  Lessons for Today (5)

Public Proclamation — I

 Was There Public Proclamation in Early Days? (4)  Summary of the Last Program (2)
Other Evidence (4)  Evidence about Revelation from the Qur’an (9)
The Call from As-Safa Hill (4) Reasons for the Length of Secrecy (6)

Public Proclamation — II

Qur’anic Reference to Abu Lahab (5)  Summary of the Last Program (2)
 Abu Talib’s Plea (3) Reaction of the Quraysh to the New Religion (5)
 Another Offer to Abu Talib (4)  Lessons from the Prophet’s Response to His Uncle’s Plea (2)
 Interpreting Abu Talib’s Position (4) An Early Assassination Plot? (4)

Containment of Islam

Prophet’s Relationship to Abu Talib (3)  Summary of the Last Program (1)
The Quraysh Warn Pilgrims against the Prophet (6)  Threat to Vested Interest (6)
 Were the Quraysh Successful in Their Plan? (4)  Qur’anic Reference and Prophecy (3)

Persecution — I

The Quraysh Torture Muslims (9)  Summary of the Last Program (1)
 Severity of the Muslims’ Torture (4) Persecution of the Strong (5)
 Confrontation with the Prophet (5) Prophet’s Reaction to Torture (4)

Persecution — II

 Making Amends: Courage of the Prophet (3) Summary of the Last Program (2)
Divine Intervention for Well-Being of the Muslims (7)  The Prophet Suffers from the People of Makkah (3)
Can Persecution Help a Cause? (4) Why Wasn’t There Divine Intervention All the Time? (3)
 Hamzah Accepts Islam (5)  The Background of the Story (2)

Offers: Temptation

Utbah Makes Tempting Offers (5)  Summary of the Last Program (2)
Reaction of the Quraysh (3) The Prophet’s Response to Utbah’s Offers (3)
 Steadfastness of the Prophet (3)  Collective Offers (3)
The Prophet Continues His Call (2) The Quraysh Demand a Miracle of God (4)
The Story of the Blind Man (4) 
Previous Section (K)

A) Monotheism     B) Prophethood     C) Muhammad in the Bible    D) Muslim's Beliefs

E) The Pillars of Islam     F) Social System of Islam     G) Economic System of Islam

H) Political System of Islam    I) Miracles in the Qur'an    J) Moral Teachings of Islam

K) Jesus       L) Muhammad



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